• A 24-month, non-randomised, controlled intervention trial investigated the effect of an intensive healthy lifestyle programme, with seminars, workshops and coaching, on weight and metabolic risk profile.
  • 143 participants were enrolled (91 in the intervention (IG) and 52 in the control group (CG)). The IG were younger, more often females, overweight and reported lower energy intake (kcal/day).
  • Weight significantly decreased in IG at all follow-ups by −1.5 ± 1.9 kg after 8 weeks to −1.9 ± 4.0 kg after 24 months and more than in CG (except after 24 months).
  • Being male, in the IG or overweight at baseline and having a university degree predicted more weight loss.
  • After the intervention, there were more participants in the IG with a ‘high’ adherence (+12%) to plant-based food patterns.
  • The changes of metabolic parameters did not follow a clear pattern. They were most distinct after 8 weeks and improved especially in people at elevated risk. 



  • Due to limited resources, the CG started with a delay of 6 months compared with IG and randomisation was not viable due to the nature of the real-world community approach. The non-randomisation may have led to a bias due to the selection of particularly motivated participants.
  • Missing data occurred for blood parameters at baseline, which was taken on a different day than other parameters and only 90% of participants were available in the IG. Further disparities of sample sizes occurred due to participants’ personal matters, for example, poor venous access. 
  • Sample sizes in IG and CG dropped within the study course of 24 months (similarly in both groups) by around 50%. However, they analysed all the available data to avoid loss of information and overestimation of efficiency which can occur in all-case analyses.


Question to members

  • What are the potential facilitators and barriers to such a lifestyle programme?



Anand, C., Kranz, R.M., Husain, S., Koeder, C., Schoch, N., Alzughayyar, D.K., Gellner, R., Hengst, K. and Englert, H. Bridging the gap between science and society: long-term effects of the Healthy Lifestyle Community Programme (HLCP, cohort 1) on weight and the metabolic risk profile: a controlled study. BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health. 2022.

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